concerning the validity of so-called DI suggests to me that it ain't happening. We all know what we see when playing craps with money at risk in the casino. We see a wide variety of results. Sometimes a shooter who sets the dice and tosses them softly has a great roll. Other times, the same shooter has a three roll hand. Good and bad results happen for all of us all of the time. Because of the rules of the game we play, outcomes can be expected to be more bad than good for each and every wager we make, except for one, the one that is paid fairly. Physics does NOT support DI. Rather, it allows for the fact that dice display kinetic energy in translational, rotational and gravitational forms, and then convert these energies into other forms as the dice hit various objects before finally coming to rest. (Max and LID can explain the specifics of this energy conversion, if they care to). Dice are not unique in this respect, All objects and movements are described by the same laws. Do some people shoot better than others? Absolutely, but IMO, this has nothing to do with so-called DI. Rather it is the variability that is inherent in everything we do.